Purpose of review: This review will focus on recent developments in several nonhuman primate models of AIDS. These models are being used to address viral latency and persistence during antiretroviral therapy in studies that are not feasible in humans.
Recent findings: Further characterization of the various macaque models of AIDS has demonstrated that several aspects of viral persistence during antiretroviral therapy model HIV-1 infection in humans, including viral decay kinetics. Widespread distribution of viral RNA and viral DNA has been detected in many tissue organs. In addition, the brain has been identified as a site of persistent viral DNA.
Summary: The macaque models of AIDS are well suited for addressing viral persistence during antiretroviral therapy, including viral latency, residual replication, and tissue organ distribution.