The purpose of this review is to describe the current status of immunotherapies for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. This review is timely, as the results of the phase III clinical trials of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) as adjuncts to combination antiretroviral therapy are about to be released.
For many years, the use of rIL-2 in HIV-infected individuals has been explored. Although the results of the clinical endpoint studies of rIL-2 are awaited, there are now further data for rIL-2 as a stand-alone therapy for the treatment of HIV. Maraviroc, a recently approved anti-HIV agent, is a small molecule antagonist of human chemokine receptor-5. The recent observation that maraviroc-treated patients achieved higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts compared with comparator regimens (without a chemokine receptor-5 antagonist) for equivalent viral load reductions has fuelled interest in using these host-directed therapies to enhance immune restoration.
This review summarizes the most recent clinical data for rIL-2 and reviews other immunotherapies in earlier development including cytokines rIL-7, rIL-15, rIL-21, new therapeutic vaccination approaches including infusion of overlapping HIV peptides and dendritic cell immunotherapy and novel agents including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues and vitamin D3-binding protein macrophage activating factor.
Faculty of Medicine, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
Correspondence to Dr Sarah L. Pett, MRCP, FRACP, Faculty of Medicine, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 0900; fax: +61 2 9385 0910; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org