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Expanded indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myeloid malignancies

Liu, Hongtao; Stock, Wendy; Bishop, Michael R.

Current Opinion in Hematology: March 2013 - Volume 20 - Issue 2 - p 115–122
doi: 10.1097/MOH.0b013e32835dd84a
MYELOID DISEASE: Edited by Martin S. Tallman

Purpose of review Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be curative for myeloid malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Advancements in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing and supportive care have improved the risk–benefit ratio for SCT, expanding its indications.

Recent findings Allogeneic SCT is an established treatment for AML with intermediate-risk and high-risk cytogenetics in first complete remission (CR1), from matched related donors (MRDs). Similar survival benefits are seen for AML in CR1 with unfavorable cytogenetics using matched unrelated donors (URDs). Molecular characterization has delineated patients with AML at higher risk with normal cytogenetics [e.g., FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD)+]. The outcomes of allogeneic SCT are comparable in patients with therapy-related or de-novo AML when adjusted for disease status and cytogenetics. In patients lacking a MRD, the majority will have a suitable alternative using an URD, umbilical cord blood, or haploidentical-related donors; outcomes are either comparable or relatively acceptable compared to a matched sibling donor. Comorbidity indices aid in identifying elderly and debilitated patients who may benefit from SCT; the application of SCT has been further increased by reduced-intensity conditioning regimens.

Summary Allogeneic SCT may be extended to almost all patients with AML, and integration of toxicity and relapse risks will determine the best approach for allogeneic SCT in the future.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Correspondence to Michael R. Bishop, MD, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2115, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Tel: +1 773 702 4400; fax: +1 773 702 3163; e-mail: mbishop.uchicagobmt@gmail.com

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.