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Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive fungal diseases in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Girmenia, Corrado; Ferretti, Antonietta; Barberi, Walter

doi: 10.1097/MOH.0000000000000086
HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Andrea Bacigalupo

Purpose of review Knowledge of the epidemiology and the risk factors of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is a critical determinant of the prevention, diagnosis and therapeutic antifungal strategy. Transplant procedures are characterized by a continuous evolution; therefore, an update of the epidemiological findings of IFDs in HSCT populations is needed.

Recent findings In the last few years, the incidence and the clinical risk factors of IFD, mainly in allogeneic HSCT populations, have been investigated in prospective, multicenter studies. New findings in the different types and phases of transplant may be considered for a redefinition of the level of risk of IFD after HSCT. Furthermore, recent studies have uncovered associations between host's and/or donor's genetic variants and immunological risk for IFDs, in particular invasive aspergillosis.

Summary Evolution of the transplant procedures was followed by an important change in the epidemiology and clinical risk of IFD after allogeneic HSCT. A new stratification of subpopulations according to different clinical infectious risk and genetic susceptibility may be considered to predict those patients most vulnerable to IFD and update tailored antifungal strategies.

Dipartimento di Ematologia, Oncologia, Anatomia Patologica e Medicina Rigenerativa, Azienda Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Correspondence to Corrado Girmenia, MD, Dipartimento di Ematologia, Oncologia, Anatomia Patologica e Medicina Rigenerativa, Azienda Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Benevento 8, 00161 Rome, Italy. Tel: +39 06 857951; fax: +39 06 44241984; e-mail: girmenia@bce.uniroma1.it

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins