Purpose of review
Although frontline treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieves high remission rates, approximately 75–80% of patients will either not respond to or relapse after initial therapy. Some patients, generally those who are younger, can be successfully salvaged with second-line chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. There is a great need for novel therapies in AML.
Advances in molecular technology recently identified recurrent mutations including mutations of DNMT3A, IDH1/2, and TET2. These mutations represent a major advance in the understanding of leukemogenesis and prognosis, and have enabled the development of targeted therapies.
Improved knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of AML has allowed development of therapies targeting epigenetic modulation, intracellular signaling pathways, prosurvival proteins, and the tumor microenvironment.