Primary endoscopic therapies for obesity and metabolic diseasesKumbhari, Viveka; Oberbach, Andreasb; Nimgaonkar, AshishaCurrent Opinion in Gastroenterology: September 2015 - Volume 31 - Issue 5 - p 351–358 doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000203 ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Tony Kalloo Abstract Author Information Purpose of review: Endoscopic approaches to obesity may help fulfill the unmet need of over half the US adult population who would benefit from therapy for obesity but are not receiving it. Endoluminal approaches have the potential to be more efficacious than antiobesity medications and have a lower risk–cost profile compared with bariatric surgery. This review outlines the current state of primary endoscopic weight loss and metabolic therapies and sheds light on the challenges faced toward making endoscopic bariatric therapies ‘ready for prime time’. Recent findings: Endoscopic approaches to obesity are being increasingly modeled on the proposed mechanisms contributing to the benefits of bariatric surgery. Therapies targeted at the stomach induce weight loss with only a proportional benefit to underlying metabolic disorders. Therapies targeting the proximal small bowel appear to modulate various neurohormonal pathways resulting in an improvement in metabolic profile in excess to that accounted for by weight loss itself. Summary: Rigorous scientific assessment of endoscopic approaches to obesity is necessary to allow its integration into the treatment algorithm of obesity. The endoscopic armamentarium against obesity continues to evolve with the endoscopist poised to be a key player in the management of this disease. Video Abstract: http://links.lww.com/COG/A12 aDepartment of Medicine and Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA bDepartment of Cardiac Surgery, University Leipzig Heart Center Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Correspondence to Vivek Kumbhari, MD, and Ashish Nimgaonkar, MD, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1800 Orleans St, Suite 2058 B, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Tel: +1 410 292 2077; fax: +1 443 683 8335; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org@jhmi.edu Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.co-gastroenterology.com). Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.