Purpose of review: Diet is known to have a major role in the expression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The role of dietary interventions and enteral nutrition in the management of IBD remains unelucidated. This study was to review the current evidence for dietary risk factors for the development of IBD and the efficacies of dietary and enteral interventions.
Recent findings: High dietary intakes of total fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, and meat are associated with an increased risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these observations. Among various dietary interventions, none has shown striking efficacy. Meta-analyses have shown enteral nutrition to be inferior to corticosteroids in adults with active Crohn's disease. However, in children, a meta-analysis has shown no significant difference in the remission rates between enteral nutrition and corticosteroid therapy. Although the evidence level is not striking, enteral nutrition may be useful for maintaining remission in patients with quiescent Crohn's disease.
Summary: Dietary risk factors for IBD and the therapeutic benefit of dietary and enteral interventions need to be confirmed by further well designed studies in large cohorts of patients.