Purpose of review: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing in prevalence, in tandem with the U.S. obesity epidemic, in both children and adults. Identifying specific dietary components that drive NASH is important for successful management of this disease.
Recent findings: Weight loss of 5–10% improves NASH. In addition, fructose and trans-fats, two components of the Western ‘fast-food’ diet, have unique metabolic effects that suggest they may be key contributors to NASH. However, further research is needed to clarify the utility of restricting these nutrients in treating NASH.
Summary: Overall reductions in body weight, through reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity, are the current mainstays of NASH treatment. Reducing fructose and trans-fat intake, independent of weight loss, may be critical to improving or preventing progression of NASH.