Bacterial infections of the small intestineHodges, Kima; Hecht, Gaila,bCurrent Opinion in Gastroenterology: March 2013 - Volume 29 - Issue 2 - p 159–163 doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32835b422c SMALL INTESTINE: Edited by David H. Alpers and William F. Stenson Abstract Author Information Purpose of review The purpose of this study is to summarize the recent developments in small intestinal bacterial infections. Recent findings This review focuses on aspects of intestinal bacterial infection concerning research developments related to pathogenesis, new therapeutic agents and approaches, as well as potential new vaccine targets. Summary In terms of drug utilization, azithromycin was successfully used to eradicate a Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (enterohemorrhagic E. coli) without harmful effects. In the case of Clostridium difficile, fidaxomicin was found to be comparable to or superior to vancomycin depending on study conditions and whether there was concomitant antibiotic use. A novel research finding is the role of galectin 8, which is a danger-sensing lectin, which plays a role in targeting Salmonella for autophagy. In addition, several enteropathogenic E. coli and Shigella effectors were found to inactivate members of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. aDepartment of Digestive Disease and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago bJesse Brown VA, Chicago, Illinois, USA Correspondence to Dr Gail Hecht, University of Illinois at Chicago, 738A Clinical Sciences Building, 840 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Tel: +1 312 996 1565; fax: +1 312 996 5103; e-mail: email@example.com © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.