Purpose of review: Although there have been no fundamental changes in the nature and practice of parenteral nutrition during the review period, there have been important observations with respect to adjunctive hormonal manipulation and the recognition of new hazards that warrant review.
Recent findings: Papers summarized include those demonstrating benefit from addition of growth hormone, and of medium-chain triglycerides, and those indicating that there is no apparent aggravation to osteoporosis, even with long-term intravenous nutrition. General advice is given on the place for new interventions and avoidance of complications.
Summary: The relative safety of long-term parenteral nutrition is reconfirmed. Interesting new manipulations of the hormonal and lipid milieu may prove to be important developments.