Purpose of review
Paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) are tumours of neural crest origin that can present along a clinical spectrum ranging from apparently sporadic, isolated tumours to a more complex phenotype of one or multiple tumours in the context of other clinical features and family history suggestive of a defined hereditary syndrome. Genetic testing for hereditary PGL/PCC can help to confirm a genetic diagnosis for sporadic and syndromic cases. Informative genetic testing serves to clarify future risks for the patient and family members.
Genetic discovery in the last decade has identified new PGL/PCC susceptibility loci. We summarize a contemporary approach adopted in our programme for genetic evaluation, testing and prospective management involving biochemical monitoring and imaging for hereditary PGL/PCC. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate our practice.
Current estimates that up to 40% of PGL/PCC are associated with germline mutations have implications for genetic testing recommendations. Prospective management of patients with defined hereditary susceptibility is based on established guidelines for well characterized syndromes. Management of tumour risk for rare syndromes, newly defined genetic associations and undefined genetic susceptibility in the setting of significant family history presents a challenge. Sustained discovery of new PGL/PCC genes underscores the need for a practice of continued genetic evaluation for patients with uninformative results. All patients with PGL/PCC should undergo genetic testing to identify potential hereditary tumour susceptibility.