Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care was launched in 1998. It is one of a successful series of review journals whose unique format is designed to provide a systematic and critical assessment of the literature as presented in the many primary journals. The fields of clinical nutrition and metabolic care are divided into 15 sections that are reviewed once a year. Each section is assigned a Section Editor, a leading authority in the area, who identifies the most important topics at that time. Here we are pleased to introduce the Section Editors for this issue.
Dr Abumrad obtained her PhD in Pharmacology from the State University of New York, USA in 1978 working with Drs Helen and Jay Tepperman on the metabolic effects of high fat diets. She then completed postdoctoral training at Vanderbilt University with Dr Charles Park where she carried out studies that documented existence of a saturable protein-facilitated component in membrane fatty acid uptake. During her subsequent tenure as assistant and then associate Professor of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics at Vanderbilt University, Dr Abumrad identified by affinity labeling the membrane protein CD36 as a facilitator of cellular fatty acid uptake. Her subsequent work using mice models while at the Physiology and Biophysics Department at SUNY in Stony Brook New York, helped establish the physiological importance of CD36 in facilitating the transport of fatty acids by muscle and adipose tissues and the role fatty acid uptake plays in overall energy metabolism. Her ongoing research is exploring molecular regulation of CD36 function by nutrition and genetics and the relationship to pathophysiology. She is the author of numerous publications, reviews and book chapters on fatty acid transport and utilization. She is currently Atkins Professor of Medicine and Obesity Research and of Cell Biology and Physiology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, Missouri, USA.
Robert F. Grimble
Professor Robert Grimble is Emeritus Professor of Nutrition at Southampton University Medical School, United Kingdom. He obtained a Joint Honours B.Sc in Physiology and Biochemistry and a PhD in Nutritional Biochemistry at the University of Wales in 1964 and 1968 respectively. He carried out post-doctoral research into the biochemistry of infant malnutrition at the Medical Research Council Infant Nutrition Division of the Dunn Nutrition Laboratory in Cambridge and at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
He was appointed to a lecturing post in the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry at Southampton University upon formation of the Medical School in 1971. Professor Grimble subsequently received a personal chair at Southampton in 1994. During his career at Southampton Professor Grimble initially carried out research into the effects of nutrition on metabolism during pregnancy and lactation, but for the past twenty years has researched into the interaction of nutrition, genetics and inflammation. In 2002 his group was the first to demonstrate that the ability of fish oil to suppress TNF-α production by leukocytes was influenced by genotype and in 2003 gave the first demonstration that fish oil reduces inflammation in plaques of patients with severe atherosclerosis. A paper by Professor Grimble, on the finding that the lipid-lowering effects of fish oil, in middle aged men, was modulated by cytokine genotype was awarded the prize for the best paper in the ESPEN journal, Clinical Science, in 2004.
Recent research, supported by the BBSRC and industry, has also examined the metabolic response to surgery, the influence of vitamin E on inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, the influence of genomics and inflammation on morbidity and mortality in cancer and in the elderly, and the influence of genomics on clinical outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
In addition to teaching and research at Southampton University he was seconded to the University of Ghana at Legon by the Ministry of Overseas Development from 1977 to 1979. For many years Professor Grimble has been active on the executives of national and international scientific societies devoted to Nutrition. He served as Programmes Secretary and Secretary to the Nutrition Society, as the UK representative of the Federation of European Nutrition Societies and as Chairman and member of the scientific committee of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN).
Professor Grimble is a frequent contributor to international conferences on Clinical Nutrition and contributes regularly to Clinical Nutrition courses organised by ESPEN, Nestle and Southampton University.
Claude Pichard initially specialized in internal medicine and gastroenterology. He studied the field of Clinical Nutrition with the group of Prof. K.N. Jeejeebhoy (Toronto, Canada) in the early eighties. Returning to Europe, he became Professor in Nutrition and created the Division of Clinical Nutrition at the Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland. Besides his clinical activities, he is currently teaching at the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Sciences and at the School of Dietetics. His group of research is involved in a number of subjects such as modulation by nutrients of colon cancer cell growth; relationships between catabolic diseases (e.g. critical illness, cancer, HIV infection) and nutritional support; manipulations of stress-related catabolism by growth factors; development of body composition techniques such as BIA, DXA, TBK; analysis of ergonomics and economy of clinical nutritional support. He has published over 367 papers (200 are referenced in PubMed), presented 165 abstracts and delivered more than 349 lectures at national and international level meetings.
Claude Pichard is active in 24 academic societies inside and outside Europe. He was the Chairman of the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) until 2006 and recently became the Director of the ESPEN Life-Long Learning educational programme.
Michael M. Meguid
Dr Michael Meguid attended University College London and University College Hospital Medical School graduating with his (MB BS) MD degree in 1968. From 1970 until 1974 he did his Surgical Residency at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Harvard Medical School and at Boston University Hospital Boston, MA and started his surgical career in Surgical Oncology and Nutrition as Assistant Professor at Boston University Hospital. Concomitantly, from 1978 until 1982 he was a graduate student in the Department Human Nutrition, MIT, Cambridge, MA, graduating with a PhD in Nutritional Biochemistry.
Over the next five years (1979 to 1984) he was Associate Professor of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California and UCLA Medical School, in Los Angeles. He directed the Department of Nutrition in the Division of Surgery at the City of Hope. From there he was recruited to the Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York. He is Professor of Surgery, Vice-Chair for Surgical Research, and Director of Surgical Metabolism and Nutrition Laboratory, Neuroscience-Physiology-Graduate Program, and Director of the Nutritional Support Services.
In addition to his clinical practice in surgery and research in patient-related nutrition support and metabolic issues, Dr Meguid's research interests lie in the field of understanding the mechanism of appetite regulation, especially in anorexia of disease such as cancer and inflammatory diseases as this involves gut hormones interaction with the hypothalamus, its neurochemical's and the gastrointestinal tract. More recently his interests have revolved around hyperphagia and obesity and the resultant metabolic syndrome. Specifically, he and his research team have developed an animal model to study the catabolic mechanism of weight loss and reversal of Metabolic Syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese patients, gaining insight via immunohistochemistry and microarray technology. The National Institutes of Health has funded him since 1984.
Dr Meguid has published extensively in peer-reviewed journals, is a recipient of the: “Joseph B.Goldberger Award in Clinical Nutrition” from the American Medical Association, and in 2006 at the 18th Annual meeting, Chicago, Il, October 9, 2006, he was elected a Life Member, The Fellows Leadership Society, American College of Surgeons Foundation. He is a member of numerous Editorial Boards, and scientific societies. He has trained 40 Research Fellows in his Surgical Metabolism and Nutrition Laboratory, supervised numerous PhD candidates in his laboratory and is a frequent guest lecturer at international conferences.
Dr David D'Alessio graduated from the University of Wisconsin Medical School, USA and did his residency in Internal Medicine at Temple University. He did research fellowships at Temple and the University of Washington. Dr D'Alessio served on the faculty at the University of Washington for 10 years and moved to the University of Cincinnati in 1999 where he is Professor of Medicine and holds the Vontz Chair for Diabetes Research. Dr D'Alessio's laboratory studies the role of gastrointestinal hormones in regulating insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and food intake. In addition, his group also investigates the physiology of insulin secretion in islet transplantation. Dr D'Alessio is Director of Endocrinology at the University of Cincinnati and Section Chief at the Cincinnati VA. He is an attending physician in the Endocrine and Diabetes Clinics at the University of Cincinnati and the Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
Luc Tappy graduated from Lausanne University Medical School in 1981, and obtained his medical and research training in Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, and Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, USA. He is currently Professor and Chairman in the Department of Physiology of Lausanne University, and associate physician in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and Director of the Laboratory for Human Metabolic Investigations at Lausanne University Hospital. His main research interests are the regulation of insulin sensitivity by nutrients, the pathogenesis of the insulin resistance syndrome, and the metabolic responses to stress and aggression.