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Nutritional imbalances linking cellular senescence and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Testa, Robertoa; Genovese, Stefanob; Ceriello, Antonioc,d

Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care:
doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000066
GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Philip Newsholme and Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Jr
Abstract

Purpose of review: Quality of nutrition plays a central role in illnesses such as diabetes and its complications. Dietary and lifestyle habits may have a strong impact, either worsening or improving the evolution of diabetes mellitus. Some factors, such as obesity, worsen the illness, causing chronic inflammation, lipid metabolic disorder, accelerated atherosclerosis, increased risk for thrombosis, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and cellular senescence. Some other nutritional components, however, have an opposite effect, probably increasing antioxidant defense.

Recent findings: The effects of nutritional factors on cellular senescence in diabetic patients are described in this review. In particular, we discuss some of the nutritional causes of cellular senescence in diabetes mellitus and focus on different nutraceutical compounds that can affect cellular senescence. Furthermore, relevant mechanisms of action are also described.

Summary: Diet and nutraceutical factors have important effects on diabetes mellitus. Some molecules, which improve antioxidant defense, may counteract cellular senescence. A good lifestyle with physical activity and good weight control can improve the quality of life in diabetic people; on the contrary, obesity and vitamin deficiencies may worsen the evolution of this illness, even inducing cellular senescence.

Author Information

aExperimental Models in Clinical Pathology, INRCA-IRCCS National Institute, Ancona

bDepartment of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS Gruppo Multimedica, Sesto San Giovanni (MI), Italy

cInstitut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS)

dCentro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Barcelona, Spain

Correspondence to Prof Antonio Ceriello, Insititut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), C/ Rosselló, 149-153, 08036 Barcelona, Spain. Tel: +34 93 227 54 00x4390; fax: +34 93 227 92 40; e-mail: aceriell@clinic.ub.es

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins