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Molecular regulation of autophagy and its implications for metabolic diseases

Ryter, Stefan W.; Koo, Ja Kun; Choi, Augustine M.K.

Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care:
doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000068
GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Philip Newsholme and Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Jr
Abstract

Purpose of review: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular programme for the turnover of organelles, proteins, and other macromolecules, involving the lysosomal degradation pathway. Emerging evidence suggests that autophagy can play a central role in human metabolism as well as impact diverse cellular processes including organelle homeostasis, cell death and proliferation, lipid and glycogen metabolism, and the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The purpose of this review is to examine recent evidence for the role of autophagy in cellular metabolism, and its relevance to select human diseases that involve disorders of metabolism.

Recent findings: Recent studies suggest that autophagy may play multiple roles in metabolic diseases, including diabetes and its complications, metabolic syndrome and obesity, myopathies and other inborn errors of metabolism, as well as other diseases that may involve altered mitochondrial function.

Summary: Strategies aimed at modulating autophagy may lead to therapies for diseases in which altered cellular and tissue metabolism play a key role.

Author Information

Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA

Correspondence to Stefan W. Ryter, PhD, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 525 East 68th Street, Room M-522, Box 130, New York, NY 10065, USA. Tel: +1 212 746 4720; fax: +1 212 746 8793; e-mail: str2020@med.cornell.edu

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins