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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care:
doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328361c8b8
CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina Mittendorfer

Sugar addiction: pushing the drug-sugar analogy to the limit

Ahmed, Serge H.a,b; Guillem, Karinea,b; Vandaele, Younaa,b

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Abstract

Purpose of review: To review research that tests the validity of the analogy between addictive drugs, like cocaine, and hyperpalatable foods, notably those high in added sugar (i.e., sucrose).

Recent findings: Available evidence in humans shows that sugar and sweetness can induce reward and craving that are comparable in magnitude to those induced by addictive drugs. Although this evidence is limited by the inherent difficulty of comparing different types of rewards and psychological experiences in humans, it is nevertheless supported by recent experimental research on sugar and sweet reward in laboratory rats. Overall, this research has revealed that sugar and sweet reward can not only substitute to addictive drugs, like cocaine, but can even be more rewarding and attractive. At the neurobiological level, the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward appear to be more robust than those of cocaine (i.e., more resistant to functional failures), possibly reflecting past selective evolutionary pressures for seeking and taking foods high in sugar and calories.

Summary: The biological robustness in the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward may be sufficient to explain why many people can have difficultly to control the consumption of foods high in sugar when continuously exposed to them.

© 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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