Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart diseaseCornelis, Marilyn C; El-Sohemy, AhmedCurrent Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: November 2007 - Volume 10 - Issue 6 - p 745–751 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e3282f05d81 Functional foods: Edited by Demetre Labadarios and Nathalie M. Delzenne Abstract Author Information Purpose of review This review summarizes and highlights recent advances in current knowledge of the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. Potential mechanisms and genetic modifiers of this relationship are also discussed. Recent findings Studies examining the association between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease have been inconclusive. Coffee is a complex mixture of compounds that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the cholesterol-raising effect of diterpenes present in boiled coffee, which may contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease associated with unfiltered coffee consumption. A recent study examining the relationship between coffee and risk of myocardial infarction incorporated a genetic polymorphism associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease. Several studies have reported a protective effect of moderate coffee consumption, which suggests that coffee contains other compounds that may be beneficial. Summary Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in coffee. Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Correspondence to Ahmed El-Sohemy, PhD, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 150 College St, Room 350, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada Tel: +416 946 5776; fax: +416 978 5882; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org This work has been supported by a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (no MOP-53147). M. C. Cornelis is a recipient of a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada postgraduate scholarship. A. El-Sohemy holds a Canada Research Chair in Nutrigenomics. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.