Purpose of review
The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the events involved in honeybee allergy and to concisely update the reader on progress toward knowledge of honeybee venom (HBV), strides in solving diagnostic difficulties, and advancements in improving safety and efficacy of HBV immunotherapy.
It is well known that honeybee allergy is unique in venom allergen and protein composition, diagnostic challenges, and immunotherapy safety and efficacy. Many new honeybee allergens have been recognized. Advances in testing, evaluation, and extract manipulation methods, many using recombinant technology, have allowed a greater ability to help with honeybee allergy diagnosis and resultant improvement in immunotherapy safety and evaluation of immunotherapy efficacy.
In an effort to address many honeybee allergy concerns, specific advances have been recently made. Some recently characterized honeybee allergens appear to be major contributors to honeybee allergy. In the setting of double-positivity, cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants and other cross-reacting components in HBV have made diagnosis of honeybee allergy challenging. Recombinant technology, including component-resolved diagnostics, and other evolving testing methods should help clarify double-positivity, if not now, in the very near future. Purified HBV and possibly depot formulations for immunotherapy appear to make it more well tolerated. Recombinant methods may help with evaluation of immunotherapy's safety and efficacy.