Purpose of review: Infantile eczema, and in particular atopic dermatitis are, in many children, the first manifestation of their predisposition to an atopic disease. Among existing prevention strategies, supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics belong to the most promising beneficial interventions. Highlighting the most recent literature, we review here the most recent studies on probiotics and prebiotics and hypothesize on the most efficient intervention strategies.
Recent findings: Various probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combinations, have been administered, in general, during the late phase of pregnancy and up to 6 months of age. In general, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics given from pregnancy until early infancy has a higher potential for protecting the infant from developing early manifestations of eczema than short administration of one specific microorganism.
Summary: The effect of probiotics and prebiotic supplementations on early manifestations of atopy such as infantile eczema are conflicting. Nevertheless, prevention strategies should aim for an enhanced efficacy by addressing not only interventions on the microbiota, but by combining them to other interventions, for example, to those aiming at actively inducing antigen-specific tolerance.