Purpose of review
We reviewed the scientific publications in the last 2 years on the connections between vitamin D and food allergy, and endeavor to focus on the possible indications for supplementation in order to prevent allergies.
Ecological studies have suggested a possible relationship between sun exposure and atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis. However, no direct evaluation of vitamin D status has been performed. Recent studies evaluating the relationship with vitamin D levels at birth or during pregnancy have shown conflicting results with the lower levels of vitamin D associated with eczema, the higher with increased food allergy prevalence.
Although the role of vitamin D in extraskeletal function is certainly intriguing and must not be underestimated, at the moment there is a lack of consistent data addressing the topic of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of food allergies. However, in light of the vast amount of literature regarding the mechanisms connected with atopic diseases, an evaluation of serum levels of vitamin D and eventually supplementation must be considered as a further opportunity to understand and treat atopic diseases. In this regard, well designed trials on vitamin D supplementation to prevent food allergies are urgently needed.