Purpose of review: To summarize recent studies in biomarkers in dry eye disease (DED) and ocular allergy in the last 18 months.
Recent findings: New significant correlations with clinical symptoms and signs have been described for some tear molecules (proteins, cytokines/chemokines, metalloproteinases, mucins and lipids). Correlation with disease severity has been shown for some of them. New proposed DED biomarkers include some proteins, such as S100A8, S100A9, lipocalin-1, secretory phospholipase A2 and some cytokines and chemokines; mucin-1 mRNA conjunctival expression levels are shown to be a very sensitive and specific DED diagnosis biomarker; metalloproteinase-9 tear level is confirmed as a good DED biomarker; cell parameters such as conjunctival cell viability and proliferative capacity have been also proposed as DED biomarkers. In ocular allergy, protein activated receptor-2, heat shock protein-70, eosinophil cationic protein and hemopexin have been pointed as potential biomarkers. Characterization of neuromediators tear levels confirmed the involvement of these molecules in both DED and ocular allergy.
Summary: Biomarkers are essential to monitor health status. Several studies have proposed different molecules and/or cellular parameters as potential biomarkers for DED and ocular allergy. The knowledge presented in these studies will further add support to the discovery and development of new drugs and the establishment of personalized medicine.