T-cell responses during allergen-specific immunotherapyMaggi, Enrico; Vultaggio, Alessandra; Matucci, AndreaCurrent Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology: February 2012 - Volume 12 - Issue 1 - p 1–6 doi: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e32834ecc9a RHINITIS, SINUSITIS AND UPPER AIRWAY DISEASE: Edited by Ruby Pawankar and David P. Skoner Abstract Author Information Purpose of review Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only specific, dose-dependent and time-dependent and disease-modifying strategy for the treatment of allergy associated with clinical improvement and biological tolerance which may persist years after discontinuation. Recent findings Successful immunotherapy in respiratory allergy is associated with the immunodeviation of Th2 response to a more protective allergen-specific Th1 cells and with the induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10)/transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-producing T regulatory cells in blood and inflamed airways. Subcutaneous treatment and sublingual treatments induce similar alterations which are dose-dependent and time-dependent. Summary This study provides an update on the immunological T-cell responses during subcutanous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy, giving a unifying view of the redirecting mechanisms and regulating mechanisms elicited by these treatments. Section of Immunoallergology, Department of Internal Medicine, Center of Research, Transfer and High Education ‘DENOTHE’, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Correspondence to Dr Enrico Maggi, MD, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Policlinico di Careggi, Università degli studi di Firenze, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134 Firenze, Italy. Tel: +39 055 4271049; fax: +39 055 412867; e-mail: email@example.com Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.