Asthma heterogeneity and therapeutic options from the clinic to the benchBonfield, Tracey L.; Ross, Kristie R.Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology: February 2012 - Volume 12 - Issue 1 - p 60–67 doi: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e32834edb5b MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by Stephen T. Holgate and J. Andrew Grant Abstract Author Information Purpose of review: Asthma is a chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease affecting all races, children and adults. The causative or intrinsic development of asthma is diverse, ranging from episodic exposure to environmental insults to physical induction in exercise. Recent findings: Asthma uniquely manifests in affected individuals as episodes of airway hyper-reactivity, chronic airway obstruction, and inflammation. The diversity in asthmatic phenotypes and the mechanisms that lead to initiation and perpetuation of the lung disease continue to make asthma a challenge to treat, classify, and manage therapeutically. Summary: This review will focus on the newest of mechanistic insights into asthma development, therapeutic innovations, and clinical applications. aDivision of Pediatrics, Departments of Pulmonary and Allergy, Case Western Reserve University bUniversity Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Correspondence to Tracey L. Bonfield, PhD, D(ABMLI), Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4948, USA. Tel: +1 216 368 4558; fax: +1 216 368 4223; e-mail: Tracey.Bonfield@case.edu Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.