T-regulatory cells in primary immune deficienciesVerbsky, James W.; Chatila, Talal A.Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology: December 2011 - Volume 11 - Issue 6 - p 539–544 doi: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e32834cb8fa Primary immune deficiency disease: Edited by Amos Etzioni and Ramsey Fuleihan Abstract Author Information Purpose of review: To summarize studies on the development and function of T-regulatory (TR) cells in primary immune deficiencies (PIDs). Recent findings: PIDs are associated with high rates of autoimmunity. TR cells, which are critical to the control of autoimmunity, appear involved in the pathogenesis of PID-related autoimmunity. A number of PIDs, including Omenn's syndrome and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, have been associated with impaired production and/or function of thymus-derived (natural) TR cells. Recently defined primary immunodeficiencies, including Stim1 deficiency, IL-10 receptor deficiency, and xIAP deficiency, have been associated with defects in TR cells. De-novo generated TR cells from peripheral CD4+ conventional T cells is impaired in the hyper IgE syndrome. Summary: Gene defects underlying PIDs may also compromise the TR cell, leading to breakdown of peripheral tolerance. aDivision of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin bDivision of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, The David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA Correspondence to James W. Verbsky, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, WI 53211, USATel: +1 414 262 6701; fax: +1 414 266 6695; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.