Occupational lower airway disease in relation to World Trade Center inhalation exposurede la Hoz, Rafael ECurrent Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology: April 2011 - Volume 11 - Issue 2 - p 97–102 doi: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e3283449063 Occupational disease: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Abstract Author Information Abstract Purpose of review: To summarize the knowledge about the occupational lower airway diseases that seem related to exposures at the World Trade Center disaster site. Recent findings: Those diseases have been characterized as irritant-induced asthma, chronic nonspecific bronchitis, chronic bronchiolitis/small airway disease, and aggravated preexistent chronic obstructive lung disease (most frequently chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but also asthma), with the expected overlapping features among them. One remarkable characteristic of the irritant-induced asthma observed among these workers was the slow onset of symptoms and long delay in clinical diagnoses. Summary: Longitudinal studies suggest that both the incidence and the associated functional decline of these predominantly obstructive lung diseases stabilized several years ago, but longer follow-up is clearly necessary. Author Information Departments of Preventive Medicine and Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to Rafael E. de la Hoz, MD, MPH, WTC Monitoring and Treatment Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1059, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA Tel: +1 212 241 7996; fax: +1 212 241 5516; e-mail: Rafael.delaHoz@mssm.edu Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.