Purpose of review: To summarize the current knowledge on remodeling in chronic sinus disease.
Recent findings: Chronic sinus disease is characterized by persistent inflammation of the nasal and paranasal mucosa and is currently classified into two major subgroups on the basis of the absence (CRSsNP) or presence (CRSwNP) of nasal polyps. Transforming growth factor-beta and matrix metalloproteinases are critical factors involved in the remodeling process.
Summary: Remodeling is clearly present in chronic sinus disease. Transforming growth factor-beta has been implicated as an important factor in remodeling processes involved in chronic sinus disease, and serves as a main switch for different remodeling patterns in chronic sinus disease.