The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in depressive symptoms among a sample of heart failure outpatients by examining sociodemographic and clinical variables: sex, race, marital status, living arrangement/status, heart failure severity, and age. The most frequently reported depressive symptoms were also examined.
A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used.
Patients were enrolled in a larger research study from 5 clinics in the Midwest (1 adult primary care medicine clinic, 1 heart clinic, and 3 heart failure clinics).
The sample included 150 patients with mean age of 61.3 years; 88 (59%) were men, and 62 (41%) were women; 47 (31%) were African American, 101 (67%) were white, and 2 (2%) were Asian patients. Forty-seven percent of the patient sample were New York Heart Association class III. Approximately half (51%) of the patient sample were married.
The Patient Health Questionnaire 8 was used to measure depressive symptoms. Heart failure severity was assessed using the New York Heart Association classification.
Patients with class III and IV had significantly more depressive symptoms than patients with class I and II (P < .0001). Age was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms scores (P < .0002). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms among the variables of sex, race, marital status, or living arrangement. The most frequently reported depressive symptom was "feeling tired/no energy."
The findings from this study may contribute to the development of a broader knowledge base regarding depressive symptoms and its correlates in heart failure and may be used as a foundation for further research.
Author Affiliations: Cardiac Stress Testing Laboratory, Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis (Ms Rohyans); and University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor (Dr Pressler).
National Institute of Nursing Research RO1 NR008147 supported this study.
Corresponding author: Linda M. Rohyans, RN, BSN, MPC-2 Building Suite 4000, 1801 N. Senate Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (firstname.lastname@example.org).