Patient safety and freedom from accidental injury is an issue that is promoting the search for excellence among healthcare providers, payers, and consumers. The issue is complex and multifaceted, providing many avenues for analysis, quality enhancement, and research. Several models exist that may assist in exploring patient safety issues and the relationships between error and safety. Three models are discussed and research questions are generated that with further investigation will help us to understand the complexity of error management and the promotion of patient safety. Because of their leadership role and guardianship in managing patient care, clinical nurse specialists understand and promote models that improve safety for their patients.