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Clinical Pulmonary Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/CPM.0b013e31819b14b8
Review

Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Different Diseases for the Same Pathogen

Dimopoulos, George MD, PhD, FCCP*; Karampela, Irene MD†

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Abstract

Aspergillus, a ubiquitous fungus, may cause a variety of clinical syndromes in the lung, depending on immune status of the host as well as the presence of underlying lung disease. The clinical spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis ranges from aspergilloma in patients with cavitary lung disease and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hypersensitivity to Aspergillus antigens to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients and chronic necrotizing aspergillosis in patients with chronic lung disease or mild immunosuppression. Organ transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, chronic lung disease, and critical illness are considered risk factors for pulmonary aspergillosis. During the last years, major advances have taken place in the diagnosis and management of these diseases with the development of newer noninvasive diagnostic techniques and antifungal agents, such as derivatives of azoles and echinocandins.

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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