Pulmonary complications in patients with hematologic malignancies is commonly encountered by clinicians. Some of these complications are believed to be related to direct toxicity of the drug itself. Novel antineoplastic agents with activity against hematologic malignancies are constantly being introduced into practice and clinical trials. This article reviews the pulmonary complications of these novel antineoplastic agents. Interstitial pneumonitis, eosinophilic pneumonia, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pleural disease, and thromboembolic disease associated with individual antineoplastic agents are discussed. Clinical presentations, radiographic findings, pathology, pathogenesis, and management are also reviewed.