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Clinical Journal of Pain:
doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3182906aed
Original Articles

The Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R): Initial Validation and Feasibility

Stevens, Bonnie J. RN, PhD*,†; Gibbins, Sharyn RN, PhD*,†,‡; Yamada, Janet RN, PhD*; Dionne, Kimberley RN, MN*; Lee, Grace RN, MSc; Johnston, Céleste RN, DEd, FCAHS§,∥; Taddio, Anna PhD*,¶

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Abstract

Objectives: To describe revisions to the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) and initial construct validation and feasibility of the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R).

Methods: The PIPP was revised to enhance validity and feasibility. To validate the PIPP-R, data from 2 randomized cross-over studies were utilized to: (1) calculate and compare PIPP and PIPP-R scores in extremely low gestational age infants undergoing a painful and nonpainful event (N=52; dataset #1) and (2) calculate and compare PIPP and PIPP-R scores in assessing the effectiveness of (a) sucrose, (b) non-nutritive sucking (NNS)+sucrose, and (c) facilitated tucking+NNS+sucrose during heel lance (N=85; dataset #2). Pearson correlations between PIPP and PIPP-R scores were calculated, and Student t tests and 1-way analysis of variance were used to determine construct validity during painful and nonpainful events. To establish feasibility, a survey of 31 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses was conducted.

Results: PIPP-R scores were significantly lower during nonpainful (mean, 8.3; SD=2.9) compared with painful (mean, 9.9; SD=3.1; t95=4.51, P=0.036) events in extremely low gestational age infants in dataset #1. In dataset #2, PIPP-R scores were significantly lower in infants 25 to 41 weeks gestation in the group receiving NNS+sucrose compared with the other 2 groups (F2,79=2.9, P<0.05). Overall, nurses rated the PIPP-R as feasible.

Discussion: Initial construct validation and feasibility of the PIPP-R was demonstrated. Further testing with infants of varying gestational ages, diagnoses, and pain conditions is required; as is exploration of PIPP-R in relation to other types of physiological and cognitive responses.

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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