Objective: Pooled safety data from 10 randomized, double-blind studies of liposome bupivacaine, a novel local analgesic formulation, were examined.
Methods: Eight hundred twenty-three patients received liposome bupivacaine (dose, 66 to 532 mg) given locally at the surgical site in 5 different settings (hemorrhoidectomy, bunionectomy, breast augmentation, total knee arthroplasty, and hernia repair); 446 received bupivacaine HCl (dose, 75 to 200 mg) and 190 received placebo. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored for up to 36 days after administration.
Results: Overall, 48% of patients were men and 21% were 65 years and older. Incidence of AEs was 62% for patients receiving liposome bupivacaine, versus 75% and 43% for patients receiving bupivacaine HCl and placebo, respectively. The most common AEs (incidence >10%) in the liposome bupivacaine arms were nausea, constipation, and vomiting. One death was reported in the liposome bupivacaine group and 1 in the bupivacaine HCl group; both deemed unrelated to study drug. Serious AEs were reported in 2.7% of patients receiving liposome bupivacaine, versus 5.4% and 1.1% of those receiving bupivacaine HCl and placebo, respectively. In both the liposome bupivacaine and bupivacaine HCl groups, 6% of patients experienced a cardiac AE; these were primarily tachycardia (4% vs. 5%, respectively) and bradycardia (2% vs. 1%, respectively). Overall incidence of treatment-related cardiac AEs was <1%; all were associated with liposome bupivacaine. All of these events were assessed by investigators as possibly related to study drug; all were mild or moderate in severity, and none required therapeutic intervention.
Discussion: Liposome bupivacaine exhibited acceptable tolerability across 823 patient exposures.