The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate to what extent pain coping and kinesiophobia contribute to limitations in activity and participation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) of the lower limbs.
A total of 238 patients with CRPS-1 of the legs from 4 pain clinics and 1 Department of Neurology of University Hospitals participated in this study. Pain and CRPS severity were assessed with the pain rating index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the CRPS Severity Score, respectively. Activity was measured with the Rising & Walking scale, and participation with the Social Functioning scale of the SF-36. In addition, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia and Pain Coping Inventory were administered. Hierarchical linear regression was used to evaluate to what extent kinesiophobia and pain coping contributed to difficulties with Rising & Walking and Social Functioning.
The analyses showed that the “resting” subscale of the Pain Coping Inventory—that is, 1 of the 3 scales evaluating passive pain coping strategies—contributed significantly to difficulties in rising and walking (explaining 12.5% of the variance) and to difficulties in social functioning (explaining 6.5%), whereas kinesiophobia was not associated with either of these measures.
These findings indicate that making use of “resting” as a pain coping strategy contributes significantly to limitations in activity and participation in patients with CRPS-1 of the legs. Indications for a negative influence of kinesiophobia or a positive influence of an active pain coping style were not found.