Multiple authors have documented that maternal outcomes differ depending on whether labor is spontaneous or electively induced. Correspondingly, there is evidence that women who are electively induced generate more costs than those in spontaneous labor. However, to determine the resource utilization of women who are electively induced, one must compare them to women who experience the actual alternative to induction, namely, expectant management. Observational studies using these comparison groups have not replicated many of the findings that lead to elective inductions being more costly. Moreover, there is little information about the contribution of outpatient costs from expectant management.