Determining which women should undergo dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry testing should be based on rational screening criteria. Screening tests should be simple to perform, readily available, and very sensitive. Clinical risk factors have been proposed by numerous professional societies as a way to screen women for further testing. There is significant variation between these societies’ recommendations. There have also been attempts at developing predictive, screening algorithms such as questionnaires and, more recently, a fracture risk assessment calculator. One approach is to proceed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry testing when a woman’s 10-year fracture risk meets that of a 65-year-old woman.