Osteoporosis Risk Factors and Early Life-style Modifications to Decrease Disease Burden in WomenNACHTIGALL, MARGARET J. MD; NAZEM, TARANEH G. MD; NACHTIGALL, RICHARD H. MD; GOLDSTEIN, STEVEN R. MDClinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: December 2013 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 650–653 doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3182aa1daf Osteoporosis: Diagnosis and Management Abstract Author Information Prevention of osteoporosis should begin in childhood and continue throughout adulthood. Although genetic determinants of muscle and bone mass may offer other therapeutic options in the future, currently, counseling should primarily focus on lifestyle modification including healthy dietary practices and regular exercise. Vitamin supplementation, particularly vitamin D, should be considered to enhance diet based on patient’s need. Attention to estrogen status is also important. In addition, patients should be counseled regularly about cigarette cessation and avoiding moderate alcohol intake. New York University Medical Center, New York, New York The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose. Correspondence: Steven R Goldstein, MD, New York University Medical Center, 10016. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.