Recent rise in rates of opiate replacement therapy among pregnant women have resulted in increasing number of infants requiring treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Short-term and long-term developmental outcomes associated with prenatal opiate exposure are discussed, including symptoms and severity of NAS, and early cognitive and motor delays. Maternal and infant risk factors are discussed, and include patterns of maternal substance use during pregnancy, genetic risk, polysubstance exposure pharmacological treatment for NAS and breastfeeding. The importance of characterizing corollary environmental risk factors is also considered.
*Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Department of Psychology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine
†Eastern Maine Medical Center
‡Eastern Maine Healthcare Systems, Bangor, Maine
The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose.
M.J.H received financial support from NIH DA4806.
Correspondence: Mark S. Brown, MD, MSPH, Kelley 6, Bangor, ME. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org