Postpartum depression is the most common complication of pregnancy, affecting 10% to 15% of women. This condition continues to be underdiagnosed and undertreated despite increased awareness. Several risk factors have been identified including anxiety or depression during pregnancy, a history of depression, as well as increased life stressors. Treatment for depression has been found to be effective and generally safe during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. The risks and benefits of treatment must be carefully evaluated and balanced with the risk of no treatment. Careful screening may assist physicians for more timely diagnosis and intervention.