Breast cancer screening is a highly complex and more recently a controversial topic. Conventional screening includes breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and screening mammography. Several newer imaging modalities have been introduced into the screening armamentarium including breast magnetic resonance imaging and whole-breast automated ultrasound. Novel imaging techniques like positron emission mammography are currently under clinical investigation in the hopes of improving the sensitivity of breast cancer screening. In addition, the development of biochemical assays, which employ minimally invasive sampling are also promising.