Abnormal Glucose Metabolism: Diagnosis and Management in the Ambulatory SettingHAWKINS, JOSIAH Z. S. MD, MBA; WING, DEBORAH MDClinical Obstetrics & Gynecology: September 2012 - Volume 55 - Issue 3 - p 731–743 doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e31825cf731 Ambulatory Obstetric Care Abstract Author Information Abstract Abnormal glucose metabolism in pregnancy is a spectrum. This spectrum stretches from mild forms of glucose intolerance that do not rise to the level of diabetes, to diabetes that first occurs in pregnancy, as well as to pregravid forms of diabetes associated with end-organ disease. In this review, we first discuss risk factors common to all forms of abnormal glucose metabolism in pregnancy. A review of how abnormal glucose metabolism in pregnancy is diagnosed precedes discussion of perinatal risks associated with different degrees of glycemic aberration. We discuss how to intervene in the ambulatory setting to mitigate these risks. Author Information Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, California The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose. J.Z.S.H. is supported by the Reproductive Scientist Development Program. Correspondence: Josiah Z. S. Hawkins, MD, MBA, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, CA. E-mail: email@example.com © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.