This study reviews issues that complicate surgery in obese pregnant patients. Maternal obesity is prevalent in the United States and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. When surgery is indicated during pregnancy, the presence of maternal obesity increases surgical risks for both the fetus and mother. Specific risks are identified and strategies to avoid them are evaluated. The prognosis and management of pregnant women who have undergone bariatric surgery are also discussed, and practical guidelines for obstetric management of these patients are presented.