Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause several common gynecologic problems. Oncogenic HPV infections are responsible for abnormal cervical cytology, cervical dysplasia, and cervical cancer. In 2006, a vaccine was introduced to prevent these common problems in women's health. The currently available HPV vaccine is quadrivalent, with HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Recently published clinical trials have consistently shown efficacy approaching 100%. Current clinical recommendations are for universal vaccination of adolescent and young adult women. This review will discuss the natural history and epidemiology of HPV, the diseases associated with these infections and current clinical usage of this vaccine. Future developments in this area will also be discussed.