Lower urinary tract symptoms refractory to standard therapies create significant distress and quality of life impact for women with these disorders. Likewise, they are challenging for clinicians caring for these women. Once conservative measures are exhausted, the few remaining treatment options are often invasive and associated with significant morbidity. Botulinum toxin is an emerging medical therapy with increasing applications in the lower urinary tract and pelvic floor, which has proven to be an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of some refractory pelvic floor disorders.
*Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland
†Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Urology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois
Correspondence: Leslie M. Rickey, MD, MPH, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland Medical Center, 22 South Greene Street, S8D18, Baltimore, MD 21201. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org