Early pregnancy failure is a common pregnancy complication. This paper reviews the terminology, diagnosis, and treatment of early pregnancy failure. Although surgical curettage has been the standard of care for more than 50 years, additional treatment options exist which appear to be satisfactory to patients. Manual vacuum curettage in the office is an effective alternative to electric vacuum curettage in an operating room. Nonsurgical treatments, including expectant and medical management, are reasonable alternatives depending on the clinical situation and the patient's desires. Clinicians need to understand how these options compare to provide appropriate counseling to patients.