This chapter reviews outcomes for children who have intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or small-for-gestation-age (SGA) status at birth. Such infants are at risk for increased perinatal mortality, birth adaptation complications, including perinatal acidosis, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, coagulation abnormalities, and selected immunologic deficiencies. IUGR infants also appear to be at great risk for complications of prematurity, including chronic lung disease and necrotizing enterocolitis. Childhood implications for IUGR include an increased risk for short stature, cognitive delays with decreased academic achievement, and a small but significant increased risk of neurologic disorders, including cerebral palsy. Low socioeconomic status is correlated with the occurrence of IUGR and is significantly related to long-term disabilities. Morbidities associated with preterm delivery appear to be additive to those associated with fetal growth restriction so IUGR, preterm infants may be at great risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcome.