You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you...

If you have access to this article through your institution,
you can view this article in

Extraoperative Electrical Cortical Stimulation: Characteristics of Motor Responses and Correlation with Precentral Gyrus

Kovac, Stjepana*,†; Scott, Catherine A.; Maglajlija, Vesela; Rodionov, Roman*; McEvoy, Andrew W.*; Diehl, Beate*,‡

Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology:
doi: 10.1097/WNP.0b013e31823cc0f9
Original Research

Purpose: To characterize properties and stimulation thresholds of extraoperative cortical stimulation with respect to the anatomic area stimulated.

Methods: Analysis of 1,496 bipolar extraoperative cortical stimulations with respect to stimulation threshold, anatomic area stimulated, afterdischarges (ADs), and latencies to observe a clinical sign on video analysis.

Results: Cortical stimulation mapping stimulus thresholds to induce clinical motor responses are lower when compared with stimulus thresholds to induce nonmotor responses (P < 0.01). Motor thresholds vary depending on the anatomic area stimulated with the precentral gyrus, showing lower stimulation thresholds when compared with cortex outside the precentral gyrus (P < 0.001). Afterdischarges are more likely to occur with motor stimulations outside the precentral gyrus (χ2 = 1; n = 123; P < 0.05), and those stimulations show longer latencies to observe an arm motor response on video analysis when compared with precentral gyrus stimulations (P < 0.05). Within the precentral gyrus, stimulation of the hand knob was achieved with lower stimulation intensities compared with stimulation outside the hand knob (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Clinical response thresholds, afterdischarge occurrence, and latencies to observe clinical signs during extraoperative cortical stimulation vary depending on the cortex stimulated. Findings provide information about motor cortex organization and might aid interpreting results from extraoperative cortical stimulation in a clinical setting.

Author Information

*Institute of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom

Department of Neurology, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Stjepana Kovac, MD, Institute of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom; e-mail:

Copyright © 2011 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society