Skip Navigation LinksHome > March 2006 - Volume 16 - Issue 2 > A New Self-diagnostic Test for Biceps Femoris Muscle Strains
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine:
Brief Reports

A New Self-diagnostic Test for Biceps Femoris Muscle Strains

Zeren, Bülent MD*; Oztekin, Haluk H. MD

Collapse Box


Objective: We compared a self-performed diagnostic test that we have been using since 1987, with other commonly used clinical tests for biceps femoris muscle-strain injuries.

Setting: Private practice focusing on sports injuries.

Patients: One-hundred forty professional male soccer players (ages 17 to 33 years) with a history and clinical findings of a pulled hamstring muscle (patients with direct trauma were excluded) had an ultrasound-proven grade I or II biceps femoris muscle injury.

Interventions: In these ultrasound-positive patients, the “taking off the shoe” test (TOST) was performed by the patient himself on both the affected and unaffected legs; and the physician then performed the resisted range of motion, passive range of motion, and active range of motion tests.

Results: The TOST had a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, and a positive predictive value and an negative predictive value of 100% for biceps femoris injury as found on ultrasound. The other muscle tests had an average sensitivity of 57%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 79%, and negative predictive value of 70%.

Conclusion: This preliminary, nonblinded observational study of the TOST found it to be more reliable than other commonly used clinical tests for hamstring tears. The clinical value of this easy-to-perform test should be evaluated in a prospective fashion.

© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

​​You Tube The CJSM Blog Linked In Facebook Twitter



Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.