Objective: To investigate the influence of professional dance training on the peak torque ratio of plantar flexion to dorsiflexion (PF/DF), angle replication ability, and balance in comparison to age-matched and gender-matched controls. The effects of injuries sustained before and during the study time period were also assessed.
Design: Prospective age-matched and gender-matched nonrandomized intervention study.
Setting: Premises of the Orthopedic University Hospital, Heidelberg, where measuring apparatus belonging to the hospital was used for the tests.
Participants: One group of 42 dancers (31 female, 11 male) in professional training (State Academy) and 40 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no prior dance or specific sport training.
Main Outcome Measurements: Isokinetic tests for peak torque at 30°/s and 120°/s, a passive angle-replication test (Biodex system 3), and a test of 1-legged standing were each carried out on 2 measurement dates (M1, M2): at the beginning of a season of professional dance training (M1) and after 5 months of such training (M2). Symptoms and/or injuries sustained during this period were ascertained continuously by means of questionnaires and interviews.
Results: A significant increase in peak torque in PF was observed in both dancer groups and male controls between M1 and M2. A significant increase in PF/DF peak torque ratio at 30°/s was observed in both male groups between M1 and M2. At M2, no significant differences in PF/DF peak torque ratio could be found between male dancers and controls, but at 30°/s between the female groups. However, in both female groups, the PF/DF ratio was not found to increase significantly between M1 and M2. In the angle-replication and 1-legged standing test, no consistent improvement was observed between M1 and M2 in either dancers or controls. In the angle-replication test, there were no significant differences between dancers and controls at M2. In the 1-legged standing test, the dancers did significantly better than controls. A total of 7 ankle injuries were recorded, but no difference was found between injured and uninjured subjects in the proprioceptive tests either at M1, as the predicator, or at M2 as the residual.
Conclusions: Dance training did not increase the peak torque ratio of PF/DF within 5 months, but a group difference was found between the women groups. Ballet training alone without concurrent additional coordinative training does not lead to improvements in ankle joint position sense or improved measures of balance within this period of observation.
From the Orthopädische Universitätsklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Received for publication February 2004; accepted July 2005.
Reprints: Holger Schmitt, MD, Orthopädische, Universitätsklinik Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).