Objective: To elicit a criterion elevation (>10%) in resting heart rate (HR) with training overstress, and subsequently test the hypothesis that such “reversed bradycardia” (RB) negatively affects running performance.
Design: Prospective before-and-after intervention with a comparison group.
Setting: General community.
Participants: 21 healthy male marathon runners.
Intervention: Voluntary doubling of training miles on 14 consecutive days.
Main Outcome Measures: Left ventricular (LV) function by echocardiography, HR, and plasma epinephrine (PE) at rest and during submaximal exercise, and 15 km road run performance.
Results: Two days after the training overstress, 12 runners met the criterion (RB group), showing an average elevation in resting HR of 16% (range: 11 to 23%). The RB group also exhibited hyperkinetic LV shortening (p < 0.05), elevated exercise HR (p < 0.001), increased PE at rest and during exercise (p < 0.05), and reduced 15 km performance (p < 0.05). The other nine runners who maintained a stable resting HR during the intervention showed no significant outcome changes.
Conclusions: In addition to muscular overuse, heightened sympathetic drive likely contributed to the observed reversal of bradycardia. The development of this stress-related cardiac perturbation was associated with a decrement in running performance, confirming the hypothesis.
Division of Cardiology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan, U.S.A.
Received January 21, 2000; accepted August 9, 2000.
Address correspondence to Rudolph H. Dressendorfer, PhD, 6025 Colwell Rd., Penryn, CA 95663, U.S.A. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org