Objectives: To determine the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infections, variables influencing mortality, and antifungal resistance rates in ICUs in Spain.
Design: Prospective, observational, multicenter population-based study.
Setting: Medical and surgical ICUs in 29 hospitals distributed throughout five metropolitan areas of Spain.
Patients: Adult patients (≥ 18 yr) with an episode of Candida bloodstream infection during admission to any surveillance area ICU from May 2010 to April 2011.
Interventions: Candida isolates were sent to a reference laboratory for species identification by DNA sequencing and susceptibility testing using the methods and breakpoint criteria promulgated by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Prognostic factors associated with early (0–7 d) and late (8–30 d) mortality were analyzed using logistic regression modeling.
Measurements and Main Results: We detected 773 cases of candidemia, 752 of which were included in the overall cohort. Among these, 168 (22.3%) occurred in adult ICU patients. The rank order of Candida isolates was as follows: Candida albicans (52%), Candida parapsilosis (23.7%), Candida glabrata (12.7%), Candida tropicalis (5.8%), Candida krusei (4%), and others (1.8%). Overall susceptibility to fluconazole was 79.2%. Cumulative mortality at 7 and 30 days after the first episode of candidemia was 16.5% and 47%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that early appropriate antifungal treatment and catheter removal (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08–0.91), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04–1.19), and abdominal source (odds ratio, 8.15; 95% CI, 1.75–37.93) were independently associated with early mortality. Determinants of late mortality were age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.07), intubation (odds ratio, 7.24; 95% CI, 2.24–23.40), renal replacement therapy (odds ratio, 6.12; 95% CI, 2.24–16.73), and primary source (odds ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.06–5.95).
Conclusions: Candidemia in ICU patients is caused by non-albicans species in 48% of cases, C. parapsilosis being the most common among these. Overall mortality remains high and mainly related with host factors. Prompt adequate antifungal treatment and catheter removal could be critical to decrease early mortality.