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Critical Care Medicine:
Review Article

Activated protein C in normal human pregnancy and pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia: A therapeutic opportunity?*

von Dadelszen, Peter MBChB, DPhil; Magee, Laura A. MD, MSc; Lee, Shoo K. MBBS, PhD; Stewart, Shawn D. BA; Simone, Carmine MD; Koren, Gideon MD; Walley, Keith R. MD; Russell, James A. MD

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Abstract

Objectives: Given the efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, this study was designed to review the evidence for a role for APC in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state, and it is a pregnancy-specific condition that mimics the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. rhAPC reduces mortality in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and could potentially have a role as disease-modifying therapy in preeclampsia. To determine which patients would be offered rhAPC, the literature pertaining to fetal/neonatal outcomes for preeclampsia remote from term, transplacental transport of protein C, and pregnancy experience with the compound were reviewed.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, review papers, hand searches of relevant nonindexed journals, and the bibliographies of relevant textbooks and articles reviewed.

Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials were considered to provide the best quality of clinical data. Case-control series were considered over uncontrolled data. Some data were not available in the published literature (e.g., neonatal outcomes at various gestational ages and birthweights after a hypertensive pregnancy; and transplacental transfer of protein C), and these data were determined by us.

Data Extraction: Data were extracted by systematic review onto data collection sheets. Because of the quality of the data, this review is primarily qualitative.

Data Synthesis: APC levels fall during normal gestation, returning to normal values by 6 wks postpartum. Limited data suggest that early onset preeclampsia is a state of further, and inappropriate, reduction in APC. Preeclampsia resembles systemic inflammatory response syndrome in this regard. After hypertensive pregnancies, neonates have a 50% chance of intact survival if delivered after 27 + 0 wks of gestation with a birthweight of >600 g. It would seem ethical to offer women with preeclampsia with <50% chance of intact perinatal survival novel and potentially disease-modifying therapy such as rhAPC, especially as there is no transplacental transfer of protein C. Limited evidence would support the use of rhAPC in women with severe postpartum preeclampsia.

Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to support the use of rhAPC in phase II clinical studies for women with either early onset preeclampsia or severe or deteriorating postpartum disease.

© 2002 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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